Tag: cybercrime

South Africa is under cyberattack

South Africa is facing one of the largest cyber attacks it has ever seen, with banks, ISPs, and the government being targeted.

In the last two months:

  • The City of Johannesburg fell victim to a cyberattack which led to its information systems becoming compromised, and its systems (including the website and billing) being such down. A ransom was demanded but the City is refusing to pay
  • The banking industry was hit by a wave of DDoS attacks targeting consumer-facing services
  • ISPs were hit by a number of DDoS attacks, as previously reported in My Tech News. In September, Cool Ideas and Atomic Access suffered an attack that severely affected their services; in October, Cybersmart was hit by a large DDoS attack which caused intermittent connectivity over two days; and recently Afrihost, Axxess, and Webafrica were hit by a very large DDoS attack which affected DSL and fibre subscribers

Parmi Natesan, CEO of the Institute of Directors in South Africa (IoDSA), told MyBroadband that “these attacks should serve as a wake-up call to companies” – who may not be taking adequate steps to protect themselves.

Discovery Bank discovered a system flaw on Monday which allowed the incorrect credit card card verification value (CVV) numbers to be used for online payments.

The CVV is the last three digits on the back of a bank card, and is considered a critical as a last-ditch security measure against certain card fraud.

Business Insider South Africa was tipped off about the flaw, and on Monday morning was able to make payments with a random CVV code, such as 000.

  • Discovery Bank said it was alerted about the issue last week
  • The bank suffered no fraud losses due to the issue
  • The flaw has now been fixed
  • Previously, the Bank didn’t require further authorisation such as an OTP (one-time pin)
  • When Business Insider later tried to use an incorrect CVV number, a call centre agent phoned to let them know it was incorrect us after the transaction to alert us that an incorrect CVV number had been used.

 

By Mohit Kumar for The Hacker News

The infamous eGobbler hacking group that surfaced online earlier this year with massive malvertising campaigns has now been caught running a new campaign exploiting two browser vulnerabilities to show intrusive pop-up ads and forcefully redirect users to malicious websites.

To be noted, hackers haven’t found any way to run ads for free; instead, the modus operandi of eGobbler attackers involves high budgets to display billions of ad impressions on high profile websites through legit ad networks.

But rather than relying on visitors’ willful interaction with advertisements online, eGobbler uses browser (Chrome and Safari) exploits to achieve maximum click rate and successfully hijack as many users’ sessions as possible.

In its previous malvertising campaign, eGobbler group was exploiting a then-zero-day vulnerability (CVE-2019-5840) in Chrome for iOS back in April, which allowed them to successfully bypass browser’s built-in pop-up blocker on iOS devices and hijack 500 million mobile user sessions in just a week to show pop-up ads.
apple malware advertisement

Though Google already patched the vulnerability with the release of Chrome 75 in June, eGobbler is still using the flaw to target those who haven’t yet updated their Chrome browser.

However, according to the latest report published by security firm Confiant, the eGobbler threat actors recently discovered and started exploiting a new vulnerability in WebKit, the browser engine used by Apple Safari browser for both iOS and macOS, Chrome for iOS and also by earlier versions of Chrome for desktop.

The new WebKit exploit is more interesting because it doesn’t require users to click anywhere on legit news, blog or informative websites they visit, neither it spawns any pop-up ad.

Instead, the display ads sponsored by eGobbler leverage the WebKit exploit to forcefully redirect visitors to websites hosting fraudulent schemes or malware as soon as they press the “key down” or “page down” button on their keyboards while reading the content on the website.

This is because the Webkit vulnerability actually resides in a JavaScript function, called the onkeydown event that occurs each time a user presses a key on the keyboard, that allows ads displayed within iframes to break out of security sandbox protections.

“This time around, however, the iOS Chrome pop-up was not spawning as before, but we were, in fact, experiencing redirections on WebKit browsers upon the ‘onkeydown’ event,” the researchers said in their latest report.
“The nature of the bug is that a cross-origin nested iframe is able to ‘autofocus’ which bypasses the ‘allow-top-navigation-by-user-activation’ sandbox directive on the parent frame.”

“With the inner frame automatically focused, the keydown event becomes a user-activated navigation event, which renders the ad sandboxing entirely useless as a measure for forced redirect mitigation.”

Though Apple’s app store guidelines restrict all iOS apps with web browsing ability to use its WebKit framework, including for Google Chrome for iOS, mobile users are still less likely to be impacted by the redirection flaw as the ‘onkeydown’ event doesn’t work on the mobile OS.

However, the eGobbler payload, often delivered through popular CDN services, also includes code to trigger redirections when visitors of a targeted web application try to input something in a text area or search forms, likely “to maximize the chances of hijacking these keypresses.”

As researchers believe, “this exploit was key in magnifying the impact of this attack.”

Between August 1 and September 23, the threat actors have been seen serving their malicious code to a staggering volume of ads, which the researchers estimate to be up to 1.16 billion impressions.
While the previous eGobbler malvertising campaign primarily targeted iOS users in the United States, the latest attack targeted users in Europe countries, with a majority being from Italy.

Confiant privately reported the WebKit vulnerability to both the Google and Apple security teams. Apple fixed the flaw in WebKit with the release of iOS 13 on September 19 and in Safari browser 13.0.1 on September 24, while Google has yet to address it in Chrome.

Cool Ideas hit by a DDoS attack again

Internet service provider (ISP) Cool Ideas was hit by a second distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack in as many weeks on Saturday.

The first attack took place on 11 September and knocked the provider out for more than eight hours.

Cool Ideas then put a number of measures in place to mitigate these attacks; however, the second attack, on 21 September, was more than four times the size.

Below are highlights of the events that took place:

  • Cool Ideas posted a notice to its website at 14:00 on Saturday to inform clients that it was being hit with another distributed denial of service attack (DDoS)
  • It seemed that the cybercriminals were watching for announcements from the ISP, as the attack then increased in intensity
  • DDoS attacks work by using “zombie” devices, which fake or “spoof” the amount of traffic on a given network
  • DDos attacks do not have a specific target – the idea is merely to do reputational damage
  • The attack occurred across the whole IP space, changing over time to use different ports and protocols
  • One aspect of the attack was DNS amplification or DNS reflection attacks. A poorly configured Domain Name System (DNS) is used to flood computers with network traffic. The high volume of fake traffic prevents the computer from being able to carry out legitimate commands and the website appears to be offline
  • The sheer size and distribution of the attack made it as effective as it was
  • It is not known who attacked the ISP nor what the motivation for doing so was

ISP Cool Ideas hit in DDoS attack

Internet service provider Cool Ideas yesterday suffered a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack, which affected all customers on their network.

The attack lasted almost four hours. Customers experienced intermittent connectivity loss and degraded performance during this time.

In a statement issued last night, the company did not have an exact time to resolution. By this morning, however, the issue affecting the Cool Ideas network has been mitigated.

What is a DDoS attack?
Accoding to CloudFlare, a DDoS attack is defined in the following way:

“A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is a malicious attempt to disrupt normal traffic of a targeted server, service or network by overwhelming the target or its surrounding infrastructure with a flood of Internet traffic. DDoS attacks achieve effectiveness by utilizing multiple compromised computer systems as sources of attack traffic. Exploited machines can include computers and other networked resources such as IoT devices. From a high level, a DDoS attack is like a traffic jam clogging up with highway, preventing regular traffic from arriving at its desired destination.”

 

Source: Mapletronics

In a time when billions of login credentials are floating around the internet, Google’s new Chrome extension aims to help.

Google’s new extension (currently only available for Chrome) will alert you if one of your username/password combinations is known to already be ‘out in the wild’, according to the company’s blog post.

The extension called Password Checkup, works in the background whenever enter your login details on a site. It compares the data against a large database with nearly four billion credentials that are known to be compromised over the years. If Password Checkup finds a match a red alert box appears and gives you a suggestion to change your password.

Google worked closely with cryptography experts at Stanford University to ensure that your credentials are not compromised while using Password Checkup. In its security blog, Google highlighted that Password Checkup scrambles all credentials with hashing and encryption as protection. Google also assures users that their login details are never seen by the company itself, either.

Don’t have Chrome? There are several other services available for free on the internet that can check to see if your credentials or other personal details have been compromised in a growing number of breaches. Check out Have I Been Pawned, Identity Leak Checker, or Firefox Monitor.

IT managers inundated with cyberattacks

A recent Sophos survey has found that IT managers are struggling to cope with the volume and magnitude of cyberattacks.

The following key findings relate to South Africa:

  • Cybercriminal tactics have evolved into using multiple attack methods and often multiple payloads to maximize profits
  • Software exploits were the initial cause of 17percent of incidents and used in 23 percent of cyberattacks, demonstrating how exploits are used at multiple stages of the attack chain
  • Phishing emails impacted 47 percent of those hit by a cyberattack
  • Ransomware impacted 38percent of attack victims
  • 39 percent of attack victims suffered a data breach
  • Only 16 percent consider supply chain a top security risk, exposing an additional weak spot
  • Nation state adversaries have proven how successful supply chain attacks are, which means common cybercriminals are likely to adopt the attack method
  • Supply chain attacks are a launch pad to emerging automated, active-adversary attacks
  • IT teams spend 27 percent of their time managing security, yet still struggle with a lack of expertise, budget and up to date technology
  • 74 percent said recruiting people with the cybersecurity skills they need is challenge
  • 65 percent said their organization’s cybersecurity budget is below what it needs to be
  • 73 percent believe that staying up to date with cybersecurity technology is a challenge

By Warwick Ashford for Computer Weekly

The cost of a data breach has risen 12% over the past five years to £3.2m on average globally, with a 10.56% increase in the UK in the past year alone to £2.99m on average, a study reveals.

In the UK, the average size of a data breach has increased 3.6% and the per capita cost per lost or stolen record is £119, which represents an increase of 9.69% from 2018 and has nearly doubled in the past ten years, according to the annual Cost of a data breach report conducted by the Ponemon Institute and sponsored by IBM Security.

The rising costs are representative of the multiyear financial impact of breaches, increased regulation and the complex process of resolving criminal attacks, the report said.

The report based on in-depth interviews with more than 500 companies around the world who suffered a breach over the past year, including 45 in the UK, and takes into account hundreds of cost factors including legal, regulatory and technical activities to loss of brand equity, customers, and employee productivity.

The study found that data breaches in the US are the most expensive, costing $8.19m (£6.6m), or more than double the average for worldwide companies in the study, and that the cost for data breaches in the US has increased by 130% over the past 14 years from $3.54m (£2.8m) in the 2006 study.

The financial consequences of a data breach, the report said, can be particularly acute for small and midsize businesses. Globally, companies with fewer than 500 employees suffered losses of more than £2m on average, which is a potentially crippling amount for small businesses, which typically earn £40.1m or less in annual revenue.

The report also examined the longtail financial impact of a data breach, finding that the effects of a data breach are felt for years. While an average of 67% of data breach costs were realised within the first year after a breach, 22% accrued in the second year and another 11% accumulated more than two years after a breach.

A co-ordinated global cyber attack could have an economic impact of up to $193bn, an insurance industry-backed report claims.

Most businesses are not applying common encryption tools effectively to contain the fallout and costs of data breaches, research shows.

Despite the danger posed by cyber attacks to mid-sized companies, boards are not prepared to manage the risk and firms are over-confident in their cyber capabilities, report finds.

The longtail costs were higher in the second and third years for organisations in highly regulated environments, such as healthcare, financial services, energy and pharmaceuticals.

“Cyber crime represents big money for cyber criminals, and unfortunately that equates to significant losses for businesses,” said Wendi Whitmore, global lead for IBM X-Force Incident Response and Intelligence Services.

“With organisations facing the loss or theft of over 11.7 billion records in the past three years alone, companies need to be aware of the full financial impact that a data breach can have on their bottom line –and focus on how they can reduce these costs,” she said.

The report found that malicious breaches are the most common and most expensive, with 51% of data breaches in the study in the UK and globally resulting from malicious cyber attacks (up from 42% globally in the past six years) and costing companies £805,000 ($1m) more on average than those originating from accidental causes.

However, the report said inadvertent breaches from human error and system glitches were still the cause for nearly half (49%) of the data breaches in the report, costing companies £2.8m ($3.5m) and £2.6m ($3.24m) respectively.

These breaches from human and machine error represent an opportunity for improvement, the report said, which can be addressed through security awareness training for staff, technology investments, and testing services to identify accidental breaches early on.

One particular area of concern is the misconfiguration of cloud servers, which contributed to the exposure of 990 million records in 2018, representing 43% of all lost records for the year, according to the IBM X-Force Threat Intelligence Index.

“Mega breaches” the report said, typically lead to “mega losses”. While less common, breaches of more than one million records cost companies a projected £33.8m ($42m) in losses, and those of 50 million records are projected to cost companies £312m ($388m).

For the 9th year in a row, the study found that healthcare organisations had the highest cost of a breach of nearly £5.2m ($6.5m) on average, which is more than 60% greater than other industries in the study.

The report notes that the past 14 have shown that the speed and efficiency with which a company responds to a breach has a significant impact on the overall cost.

This year’s report found that the average lifecycle of a breach was 279 days, with companies taking 206 days to first identify a breach after it occurs, and an additional 73 days to contain the breach.

Incident response
The study shows that companies with an incident response team that also extensively tested their incident response plan experienced £990,000 ($1.23m) less in data breach costs on average than those that had neither measure in place. While companies that were able to detect and contain a breach in less than 200 days spent £965,000 ($1.2m) less on the total cost of a breach.

This appears to be an area that needs some attention in the UK, where the mean time to identify the data breach increased from 163 to 171 days from 2018 and the mean time to contain the data breach increased from 64 to 72 days.

Globally, the study found that companies that had fully deployed security automation technologies experienced around half the cost of a breach (£2.1m on average) compared with those that did not have these technologies deployed (£4.15m on average).

Extensive use of encryption was also a top cost saving factor, reducing the total cost of a breach by £289,000, the study shows.

Breaches originating from a third party – such as a partner or supplier – cost companies £297,000 more than average, the report said, emphasising the need for companies to closely vet the security of the companies they do business with, align security standards, and actively monitor third-party access.

By Jack More for Mashable 

They wouldn’t have numbered it if it was the only one.

On 16 January, security research Troy Hunt uploaded a massive cache of leaked e-mails and passwords to his invaluable website have i been pwned.

The 87GB dataset, dubbed “Collection #1,” was admittedly years old, and had been passed around by hackers for some time now. Still, the sheer scale of it — containing over 772-million email addresses — turned heads. Hold onto your digital butts, because as Krebs on Security reports, you ain’t seen nothing yet.

According to Krebs, the Collection #1 data breach is, unsurprisingly, part of a much larger collection of stolen online credentials being sold online. And, taken as a whole, it dwarfs Collection #1’s size.

Just how big are we talking? According to the hacker allegedly selling access to the data who communicated with Krebs over Telegram, the entire data set of email addresses and passwords comes close to 1TB. Brian Krebs, the infosec journalist behind Krebs on Security, tweeted a screenshot purportedly depicting a page listing the data for sale.

In addition to the 87GB Collection #1, there’s a 526GB Collection #2, a 37GB Collection #3, a 178GB Collection #4, a 42GB Collection #5, and two other folders totaling an additional 126GB worth of credentials.

The seller told Krebs that, in total, they had close to 4TB of so-called password packages. Yeah, that’s a lot. According to the image above, the “Price for access lifetime” is only a cool $45 (R630).

So your email, along with one or more passwords to various throwaway online accounts you’ve used and discarded over the years, is likely being traded on the dark web. What does this mean for you?

Well, if you’re smart about your online security, probably not too much immediately. Assuming you use unique passwords for each account online — and you definitely should — any of your passwords contained in the dataset would only gain a hacker access to one specific online service. Like, say, your old Tumblr account. And, if you use two-factor authentication, you’re likely in the clear.

However, all this goes out the window if a hacker gets access to your main email account and can initiate password resets. And if the email account in question just so happens to share a password with your now-defunct Neopets account or whatever? You might legit be in trouble. Consider getting a password manager, and make sure your email has a unique password and 2FA.

And then go about your normal online business, comfortable in the knowledge that your personal data is being sold to hackers for the low, low price of $45 (R630).

To see whether your email address has been breached, visit have i been pwned.

By Shanice Naidoo for IOL

A Bloubergstrand man had his Absa business account swindled out of R3.1 million while he was in Miami for two months.
Feruccio Ferucci left Cape Town in October without suspecting that his banking information had been stolen.

Around the end of October, his Vodacom SIM card stopped working as well as his internet banking. Growing suspicious, he contacted his daughter in Cape Town to find out from Vodacom what had happened. They informed her that a SIM swap had been done.

“I did not authorise the SIM swap. My phone stopped working for about three weeks and then started working again.

“I haven’t heard anything from Vodacom telling me what happened because my phone just started working again three weeks later,” said Ferucci.

When he returned on December 2, he was shocked to find out from his staff about transactions which were not approved by them at his business in Paarl or by himself. These were fraudulent transactions which had gone off the business account during two of the weeks which his phone had not been working equating to R3.1m.

“These transactions were around R300 000 each and there were about ten transactions. I then contacted my attorney and he referred me another attorney who specialises in this type of crime. I then wrote a protest letter to Absa threatening to close my account with them and my money was refunded around December 23,” said Ferucci.

On speaking to the new attorney, he was told that this was often done to people who are overseas because perpetrators assume one would not check their phone regularly.

“The attorney told me that 90% of the cases he deals with involved people who went overseas. There is no doubt in my mind that what happened to me was promoted by employees of both Vodacom and Absa.

“They probably didn’t steal the money but they probably sell the information,” said Ferucci.

Both Absa and Vodacom have said they are investigating the matter.

IRS Forensic Investigations, which investigates financial, organised and cyber crimes director Chad Thomas said sim swaps are a major issue, with some victims reporting that they have become victims of crime while their phones have been off while they have been travelling long distances.

However, the breach of personal data, including credit card numbers is not just confined to individual hacks via trojans or malware but is also as a result of highly sophisticated cyber attacks on data stored by corporates.

“People need to take cognisance of the fact that a sufficiently determined and capable hacker can take over someone’s online footprint if the correct measures are not taken to protect their information. However, it is not just the individual that needs to take precautions, but also corporates that are storing client’s information and have a responsibility to safeguard that information,” said Thomas.

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