It’s been called the new cancer and it’s killing us. Sitting hunched forward looking at a screen all day causes a laundry list of health issues, from heart and brain damage to back, hip and neck problems.

Linda Trim, director at Giant Leap, says that such is the growing awareness of the dangers of sitting, that in addition to ensuring correct ergonomics for desks and chairs, she increasingly works with movement specialists like Monja Boonzaier, who helps employees preserve their health in the office.

Boonzaier (who teaches locally the internationally accepted Feldenkrais Method of body awareness and movement) says that although many people understand how bad all day sitting is, much of the advice on how to combat it “is impractical and wrong.”

“For example, people are advised to sit leaning back. But how can you sit back in chair and work on a computer? A lot of advice is also centred around having a strong core because you need those muscles to hold you upright.

“It’s a good theory but people know from their own experience a strong stomach does not make you sit upright. If you watch someone who has been told to sit or stand straight they cannot maintain this ‘correct’ position without a continuous effort. As soon as their attention shifts to an activity that is interesting they will slump back to their original posture.”

Boonzaier says that dynamic sitting is a powerful solution and is increasingly taught the world over as a way to combat the ill effects of sitting all day.

“We recommend arm and wrist stretches, doing side bends to the left and the right to stretch lower back pains, and also doing glute stretches like lunges or swinging each leg forward and back while standing. You should also regularly roll your feet, rock your pelvis back and forth, shift your weight to the left and right sides of your seat, and press each ear to its nearest shoulder. “

Boonzaier says this only take a few minutes and suggests doing a few of them every hour as it will dramatically reduce joint stiffness and back pain. “Ideally people should also get up from their desks and walk around the office or up and down the stairs every hour too.”

Trim, however, warns that stretching at work doesn’t mean you can skip exercise. “The three best exercises to combat sitting for long spells are squats, lunges and wall sits. The best thing about these exercises that you can do them anywhere, you don’t need a gym.”

Trim adds that ergonomically friendly desks and chairs was also fundamental to good office health. “Amongst other things, this means having an adjustable chair that supports your spine and allows you to sit with feet flat on the floor and thighs parallel to the floor. Desks should have clearance for your knees. Computer monitors should be placed directly in front of you, about an arm’s length away. The top of the screen should be at or slightly below eye level. The monitor should be directly behind your keyboard.”

There is another often overlooked aspect to sitting all day – we forget to breathe.
“Bad posture and stress at work often makes us forget to breathe properly. Every hour, take a few moments to take three or four really deep breaths. Breathe in deeply and then out slowly and press the breath out of your lungs. This can be done while stretching.”

What do Millennials want at work?

Analysing and interpreting Millennials is an industry in itself, but are they really as different as experts would have us believe – especially when it comes to the workplace?

Richard Andrews, MD of Inspiration Office, says, “While pointed descriptions of what makes Millennials unique are presented as self-evident, very few are supported with solid empirical research.

“On the contrary, a growing body of evidence suggests that employees of all ages are much more alike than different in their attitudes and values at work.

“If gaps do exist, they amount to small differences that have always existed between younger and older workers throughout history and have little to do with the Millennial generation.”

And there are plenty of examples as evidence.

“Even the most widely accepted stereotypes about Millennials appear to be questionable” Andrews noted, pointing to a recent study by IBM’s Institute for Business Value. The report entitled Myths, Exaggerations and Uncomfortable Truths – The real story behind Millennials in the workplace was based on a multigenerational study of 1 784 employees from companies across 12 countries and six industries. It found that about the same percentage of Millennials (25%) want to make a positive impact on their organisation as Gen Xers (21%) and Baby Boomers (23%). Differences were uniformly minimal across nine other variables as well.

A 2015 study commissioned by international business broadcaster CNBC showed similar results.

“Looking at the importance of six traits in a potential employer — ethics, environmental practices, work-life balance, profitability, diversity and reputation for hiring the best and brightest — the CNBC study found found that Millennial preferences are just about the same as the broader population on all six.

“In fact, contrary to the hard-to-please image, Millennials reported being more satisfied with the training and skills development they receive. And 76% were satisfied with their opportunities for promotion, 10 percentage points higher than the rest of the population.”

A KPMG study also showed Millennials also to also be virtually identical to their older colleagues on every measure of overall engagement such as pride in the organisation, optimism about the firm’s future and trust in leadership.

So why do so many people perceive Millennials as so different? An interesting study was carried out by researchers from George Washington University in which they reviewed 20 studies examining generational differences.

“The conclusion was that meaningful differences among generations probably do not exist in the workplace. The small differences that do appear are likely attributable to factors such as stage of life more than generational membership, “ Andrews notes.

“For example, one of the prevailing perceptions of Millennials is that they have much higher traits of narcissism. But interestingly, this study shows it’s a trait more associated with young people, and not linked to when you were born.”

Andrews added that the myth of the job-hopping Millennial is just that — a myth. The data consistently showed that today’s young people are actually less likely to job hop than previous generations.

In light of all this evidence, it’s likely that companies pursuing Millennial-specific employee engagement strategies are wasting time and money.

“They would be far better served to focus on factors that lead all employees to join, stay, and perform at their best,” Andrews added. “And those factors are the same for all workers – a winning organisation they can be proud of, an environment in which they can make the most of their skills, good pay and fair treatment and enjoyable, fulfilling work.”

The meaning of ‘unfair’

By Ivan Israelstam, chief executive of Labour Law Management Consulting 

The Labour Relations Act (LRA), born from the Constitution, provides that “every employee has the right not to be-
(a) unfairly dismissed; and
(b) subjected to unfair labour practice.”

Section 187 of the LRA provides that a dismissal is automatically unfair if it has an unfair reason. The section then lists the reasons for dismissal that would be unfair. For example, if the employee was fired because he/she had exercised his right to take action against the employer in terms of the LRA, this retaliatory dismissal would be automatically unfair. Again, we have an example of the employer’s interference with an employee’s right being defined as “unfair”.

‘Unfair’ is one of the most frequently used terms in labour law. The CCMA receives tens of thousands of referrals each year from employees claiming unfair treatment at the hands of their employers. It is therefore most surprising that this term is not defined in any of the statutes. The result of this is that the decision as to what is “unfair” has to be made by trade unions, employees, employers, judges, arbitrators, and legal practitioners in each individual case where unfairness is being alleged.

While the legal meaning of the term ‘unfair’ is extremely illusive every employer needs to have a proper grasp of the legal meaning of “unfair” in order to avoid the legal repercussions of doing anything unfair to its employees.

Section 188 of the LRA deems a dismissal to be unfair, even if it is not automatically unfair, if the employer fails to prove-
(a) that the reason for the dismissal is a fair reason; and
(b) that the dismissal was effected in accordance with a fair procedure.

This section explains neither what is meant by “a fair reason” nor what a “fair procedure” is. However, common law has established guidelines in these regards and these guidelines have been codified in Schedule 8 of the LRA. For example, item 7(b) includes a requirement that any person deciding whether a misconduct dismissal was fair must, amongst other things determine whether the dismissal was an appropriate sanction for the contravention of the rule that was contravened by the employee.

The word “appropriate” here again gives us a clue to what is “unfair”. That is, if the employer’s decision or action is inappropriate it could be unfair in labour law. The word “appropriate” in a labour law context implies that the employer’s action must be appropriate in the context of the specific situation in which the action was taken. Another way of putting this is that “the punishment must fit the crime”. If the employee is fired for a minor infringement or where circumstances reduce his/her liability a dismissal would usually be inappropriate and therefore unfair.

In summary, the act of an employer would be seen to be unfair if it is one-sided, unnecessary and/or inappropriate under the circumstances or infringes the employee’s rights. As employees have a vast number of very strong labour law rights employers need to ensure they understand these rights. They need to avoid taking any action affecting employees before checking with their labour law expert that it would be safe to take such action and how to go about it.

Be prepared for con-arb at the CCMA

By Ivan Israelstam, chief executive of Labour Law Management Consulting

The CCMA hears over 180 000 cases a year. This can result in backlogs and delays in resolution of disputes. As a consequence the law provides for a speedier dispute resolution process called con-arb, which stands for conciliation-arbitration.

Regardless of whether con/arb is applied the process always begins with conciliation. This is a peace-making process whereby a CCMA or bargaining council (BC) mediator tries to assist the employer and employee to reach an out-of-court agreement and a quick resolution of the dispute. The conciliating commissioner has no authority to make an award (judgement).

On the other hand arbitration is a judicial-type process that usually occurs if a conciliated settlement is not achieved. At arbitration the employer and employee do not negotiate an agreement. Instead, they bring and present evidence as in any court case so that the arbitrator can make a finding.

Con-arb is when, instead of scheduling the arbitration for a later date, it is held on the same day, the very minute that conciliation fails! Thus, the parties have no time after the conciliation meeting to prepare their evidence and arguments for the arbitration!

Therefore, on receiving any con-arb notice a party who does not want con-arb must lodge a formal objection at least 7 days in advance of the set hearing date. However, such an objection will not be valid if the dispute concerns an unfair dismissal relating to probation or an unfair labour practice relating to probation.

As mentioned, the purpose of con-arb is to cut down drastically the time period between conciliation and arbitration. It could also have the effect of forcing the parties to make every effort in trying to settle the matter at conciliation. This is because they are aware of the arbitration that will take place immediately conciliation fails.

It is essential for employers and employees who receive con-arb notices to:

• Realise straight away that it is a con-arb that has been scheduled
• Understand what con-arb means for them in practice
• Begin immediately with preparations for the con-arb.

This is particularly so because the parties seldom get more than 14 days advance notice of a con-arb.

The parties need to enter into intensive preparations the moment they receive a con-arb notification because:

• 14 days is very little for purposes of preparation
• The parties have to prepare for both conciliation and for arbitration
• Preparation for arbitration in particular takes a great deal of time.

Included in these preparations should be:

• The preparation of the witnesses of truthful, relevant and accurate testimonies
• Collecting and preparing documentary and other evidence
• Responses to anticipated evidence that the opposing party could bring
• Preparation of case arguments and case law.

Buckshot dismissals are risky

By lvan lsraelstam, chief executive of Labour Law Management Consulting

Frequently employers know that serious misconduct has occurred but are unable to prove which employee or employees are responsible. This can occur in a variety of circumstances.

For example:

• Stock may go missing from a warehouse or retail store where any of a number of employees had access to the stock and opportunity to remove it

• Damage may have been caused to business machinery in a workshop used by numerous employees

• Confidential information may have been leaked

• There may be cash shortages in tills or other cash storage points

Employers are often tempted in such cases to discipline everyone who could possibly have been involved in such misconduct. This buckshot approach by employers may be motivated by a number of factors including the thinking that:

• If we fire the lot we will be sure to get rid of the culprit

• Some case law has given the impression that such group dismissals may be justified

In the case of NUSFRAW obo Gomez & others vs Score Supermarkets (2003, 8 BALR 925) a group of managers were dismissed as a result of stock losses amounting to six million rand. While there was no proof that these managers were guilty they were fired. The CCMA arbitrator found that the poor management of the business by the dismissed employees had led to the losses and that this justified the dismissal.

Again in the case of FEDCRAW vs Snip Trading (Pty) Ltd the arbitrator ruled in favour of group dismissals. Here, the employer had a policy which held every employee responsible for stock losses. When stock disappeared several employees were fired despite the absence of direct evidence of their guilt.

The arbitrator found that the concept of group responsibility for stock losses was not unfair under the circumstances.

The outcomes of these two cases have misled a number of employers into believing that group dismissals are inherently fair. However, this will only hold true in exceptional circumstances. It will depend on the extent to which the employees specifically have responsibility for prevention of losses and have the means of preventing losses. It will also depend on the viewpoint of each individual arbitrator.

For example, in NUM & Others vs RSA Geological Services (2004, 1 BALR 1) fifteen employees were dismissed after kimberlite was found dumped down a borehole. The CCMA upheld the dismissal of five of the employees because there was some evidence of their individual guilt. However, the arbitrator ordered the reinstatement of the other ten employees as there was insufficient proof that they had been implicated in the dumping of the kimberlite.

Again in SAGAWU obo Cingo & Another vs Pep SA Limited (2004, 10 BALR 1262) the entire staff of one of the employer’s stores were dismissed for stock losses. The CCMA found that the group dismissal was unfair because the employer had failed to prove that the dismissed employees were guilty of misconduct. The dismissed employees were reinstated with full retrospective effect.

The apparent lack of consistency in case law and the powerful laws protecting employees from unfair dismissal sound a strong warning to employers not to act against employees before they fully understand their legal rights. The correct actions of the employer will differ from case to case depending on a number of legal subtleties and interpretations.

By Douglas Karr for MarTech 

When it comes to analysing the beliefs and purchasing habits of different consumer groups, marketers tend to overlook dads. Many assume that men who are dads have similar habits to those who aren’t dads, or they use outdated stereotypes of fathers when crafting their messaging.

However, today’s fathers have well-defined beliefs about their roles, distinct purchasing behaviors, and are digitally savvy.

Key amongst these findings is the impact of fatherhood on purchase behavior and brand affinity:

  • 44% of fathers changed food/beverage/grocery brands
  • 42% of fathers changed household cleaning products
  • 36% of fathers changed personal care products
  • 27% of fathers changed financial products

In honour of Father’s Day, MDG Advertising has created a new infographic that shows which behaviours and statistics brands should consider when developing products and services geared toward dads:

  • Dads do not like how they are portrayed
  • Dads see fatherhood as important and rewarding
  • Many dads don’t think they devote enough time to fatherhood
  • Dads make important—and different—purchase decisions
  • Digital and mobile are essential for younger dads

The infographic

Source: Fin24; The Citizen

The National Minimum Wage Bill submitted before the National Assembly on Tuesday is a historic achievement – a direct response to the call made in the 1955 Freedom Charter, and a first since the dawn of South Africa’s, Labour Minister Mildred Oliphant said on Tuesday.

The National Minimum Wage Bill, which sets minimum wages at R3 500 a month or R20 an hour, was passed with 202 votes from mostly ANC benches. The other two Bills, the Basic Conditions of Employment Amendment Bill and Labour Relations Amendment Bill also passed with the same number of votes.

All three Bills have been severely criticised by opposition parties, as well as Saftu.

All three bills were passed by the National Assembly and will be sent to the National Council of Provinces for concurrence.

“Every journey starts often with a small step. The journey to address the plight of the lowest paid workers reached a milestone,” she said. Oliphant added that even though the bills seemed “mild”, they are “groundbreaking” in character.

Referring to the “robust engagement” between social partners throughout the formulation of the bills, Oliphant said it is a reminder that democracy is alive and real in South Africa.

“We must recognise that we may not agree all the time, it is normal to disagree at times.”

The national minimum wage seeks to improve the lives of the lowest paid workers in the labour market and will address the inequality challenge in South Africa and by extension poverty, Oliphant explained.

A national minimum wage commission will also be established to take over the functions of the Employment Equity Commission. The commission will review the national minimum wage, currently at R20 per hour, annually.

Oliphant added that the Basic Conditions of Employment Amendment Billl has proposed amendments as a consequence of the National Minimum Wage Bill.

It is designed to reinforce and create an “enabling legal environment” for the national minimum wage. It also redefines the role of the Council for Conciliation Mediation and Arbitration on matters which may arise as a result of the implementation of the minimum wage.

The Labour Relations Amendment Bill in turn will give effect to a code of good practice on strengthening collective bargaining, preventing violent and prolonged strikes.

The bulk purpose of the amendments is purely administrative – preventing employers from side-stepping new legislation without following due processes, she explained.

“For far too long millions of South Africans [have sat] on the margins of economic and social progress,” said Oliphant.

The disconnect between those at the top and those at the bottom must be addressed, and the wealth creators and disadvantaged in society should be brought together.

African National Congress MP and chairperson of the portfolio committee on labour Sharome Van Schalkwyk hit back at claims that the committee rushed the process of considering the amendments.

She added that the R20 per hour rate is a starting point, increasing the income of more than six million South Africans. The benefit of this move will have a wider reach as these workers often have to support their families.

She also criticised the call by the South African Federation of Trade Unions (Saftu) for a minimum wage of R12 500, calling it a “massive shock” to the economy.

“We must be realistic and not reckless in the process,” said Van Schalkwyk.

Democratic Alliance MP Michael Bagraim criticised the “undue and desperate haste” with which the bills ran through the portfolio committee.

He also raised concerns over the job losses that would follow. He noted that Saftu did not have a fair opportunity to make its submissions in the consultation processes.

Economic Freedom Fighters MP Thembinkosi Rawula also shared views that government should not exclude Saftu from making submissions.

Saftu is also against the national minimum wage of R20 per hour. It previously held marches across various cities in the country in a national strike in April, demanding a living wage.

The Congress of South African Trade Unions (Costau) meanwhile issued a statement on Tuesday welcoming the finalisation of the bills. It has called for Parliament to adopt them speedily so that the president can sign them into law.

Cosatu has said that even though a minimum wage is not a living wage, a living wage cannot be legislated. “In fact no country has legislated a living wage.

“That is something that unions and workers must campaign for. That is something that government must work towards. That is something that business must be compelled to do,” parliamentary coordinator Matthew Parks said.

Cosatu also hit out at Saftu for slamming the Labour Relations Amendment Bill. Saftu believes the bill will make it impossible for trade unions to organise protected strikes, even after attempts for a negotiated settlement reach deadlock, the federation claimed.

Cosatu said the bill does not collapse the right to strike.

Uniting labour

Saftu acting spokesperson Patrick Craven told Fin24 that it is unfortunate that Cosatu supports the labour bills, but the federation has requested to meet up with Cosatu to discuss issues of “common interest”.

These comprise poverty, inequality, unemployment, privatisation and the VAT hike. Saftu has not yet had a response from Cosatu on the matter.

Cosatu spokesperson Sizwe Pamla said that the congress is aware of the request and plans to meet with Saftu within the next two weeks, once secretary general Bheki Ntshalintshali is back in the country.

“We want to explore a situation to unite workers when it comes to policy questions.” He said it is important to look at what unites workers, rather than the issues that divide them.

Wellness at work is a increasingly dominant theme in any discussion about the workplace but for many it’s a broad buzzword without much science behind it.

But Linda Trim, director at Giant Leap, says that thanks to a new research project called Wellness Together carried out by Sapio Research and that included 1 000 respondents, it is clear that productivity, creativity and profitability can be affected by employee conditions.

“The survey provides evidence of strong correlations between people feeling good about their workplace and a positive outcome for business. To achieve true ‘wellness’ attention must be given to every component that can impact mental and physical health.

“This means building structures, company cultures and of course also furniture and fittings because all these factors fit together and are important to people and the businesses they work for.”

Trim notes that the survey evaluated 6 key attributes of wellness in the workplace:

1. Movement

Musculoskeletal problems, namely those related to the back, neck and upper limbs, account for the second biggest reason for absenteeism from the workplace – after colds. “High performing companies are more likely to have facilities that allow people to adjust their work station to best suit them. This can mean anything from the height of the desk to having the option to sit or stand while working. It is important to move around and change environments every so often. This helps prevent dips in concentration, and could help prevent back and neck problems.”

2. Lighting

Harsh or overly bright lighting is considered a far greater distraction for employees that low level or soft lighting. “Yet lighting systems that have the ability to change their colour tone as the day progresses are the least common features in an office,” Trim notes.

“Having glare control and variable lighting is found to be a strong characteristic of more profitable businesses. Human-centric lighting is a major benefit to the most successful organisations.”

Lighting that responsive to circadian rhythms is the next major trend expected in lighting technology.

3. Personal storage

The survey revealed that personal storage at work is a contentious issue. “Increasingly people are bring more things, and often more expensive things, to the workplace,” says Trim. “Gym gear, tech, and sometimes cycling gear all needs to be stored somewhere throughout the day. Banks of personal lockers are becoming a standard facility in big cities overseas and we expect that trend to catch on South Africa too.”

Trim added that the survey also showed that despite the trend towards hot desking, the majority of people in study (53%) stilled wanted their own desk. “But these days fewer people have their own desks. But giving all employees – whether permanent or mobile – individual storage, as well as providing office storage, will help them maintain a sense of control, belonging and a sense of well being.”

4. Noise and acoustics

Shrieking laughter, loud conversations and traffic are distracting. And being listened to on the phone is annoying.

“Providing quiet working spaces is one of the most important characteristics of companies that consider themselves to be innovative, creative or simply focused,” says Trim. “Quiet work spaces are one of the biggest differentiators between high and low performing companies according to the survey.”

But Trim also notes that is also important for businesses to offer areas where staff can talk openly and discuss ideas. “Having the choice is extremely important.”

5. Air quality

Not only is fresh air the single most successful way in mitigating dips in concentration, but the survey showed it to be one of the most differentiating factors of the most productive and innovative companies. “Good quality ventilation and air movement is therefor a vital characteristic of a healthy office,” says Trim.

6. Staff empowerment

“Companies can make their staff feel empowered in a host of ways and this can have significant outcomes for business,“ Trim notes.

“The act of consulting with staff, and letting them have a say on their environment, is a major differentiator between high and low performing companies. This suggests that consulting with employees on issues of importance will lead to greater profitability.”

Trim cautioned however that employees won’t necessarily choose the factors that are prevalent in profitable companies without guidance and awareness of the implications of different choices. The role of an expert guiding staff choice is therefore essential.

In today’s retail and shopping centre landscape, it is becoming increasingly difficult to compete for consumers’ attention, says Steven Burnstone, CEO and head of analytics for Eighty20 Consulting

Standing out and being attractive to consumers is not impossible-all it takes is an understanding of your customers.

Burnstone says that understanding one’s customer base is key. “The way businesses communicate to customers is one of the many areas that need to be focused upon. Businesses need to shift away from traditional, product-focused advertising models and focus on delivering advertising and promotional messages that are customer-focused and tailored to specific individuals.”

Burnstone shared invaluable insights at the eighth annual South African Council of Shopping Centres’ (SACSC) Research Conference on 9 May 2018.

South African customers are members of multiple programmes, receiving countless marketing messages across all channels. How can retailers set themselves apart and be heard in this competitive environment? Big data and artificial intelligence is enabling retailers to speak more accurately to customers and better understand what marketing strategies work best to drive feet in stores and grow customer satisfaction.

Customer behaviour changes achieved by promotional campaigns and loyalty programmes can be assessed.

“In highlighting the data required, methods used and the common problems encountered, we can uncover some of the nuances of customer behaviour change and what to look out for. We can look at some of the insights gained from these analyses and see how they can be used to systematically optimise these campaigns and programmes.

“These can improve the efficiency of marketing to customers, through personalised targeting of messaging and communication channel.”

By Ivan Israelstam, chief executive of Labour Law Management Consulting 

South African labour legislation gives employees a plethora of rights against the employer. So much so that many employers wonder whether the resultant burden on them makes it worth continuing to run the business.

For example, employees have, amongst others, the right to:

• Join trade unions
• Go on strike
• Procedural fairness at disciplinary hearings
• A fair reason for dismissal
• Protection form unfair demotions
• Be promoted under certain circumstances
• Minimum wages in many cases
• Sick leave, holiday leave, maternity leave and compassionate leave
• Overtime pay
• Consistent treatment
• Protection from unfair discrimination
• Representation at CCMA by a trade union representative

On the other hand, labour legislation gives employers few rights; and those that they do have are very restricted. That is, employers may exercise limited rights as long as, in doing so, they do not infringe the numerous rights given to employees.

However, one area that employers can exercise their rights is that of fiduciary duty. This means that the employee has, in certain ways, the duty to put the employer’s interests first. This does not mean that the employee must, as a way of benefiting the employer, forfeit his/her rights to leave, legal working hours or fair discipline. It does mean that the employee may not advantage himself/herself unfairly at the expense of the employer.

Specifically, this means that the employee may not:

• Place him/herself in a position where his/her interests conflict with those of the employer
• Make a secret profit at the expense of the employer
• Receive a bribe or commission from a third party
• Misuse the employer’s trade secrets
• Give a third party the employer’s confidential information.

While this principle applies generally to employees it applies more strongly to senior employees. In deciding on the extent of fiduciary duty that an employee has the courts consider a number of factors including:

• The degree of freedom that the employee has to exercise discretion in making and executing business decisions
• The opportunity for the employee to exercise this discretion in his/her own interests
• The extent to which the specific circumstances open the employer to abuse of the employee’s discretion
• The extent to which the employer relies on the employee for expertise and judgement in conducting the business
• The extent to which the employee is in a position of trust.

Clearly, the more junior the employee the less these fiduciary factors are likely to prevail. That is, with some exceptions, junior employees normally do not have the right or duty to make crucial business decisions or the opportunity to misuse decision-making power.

The line between who is a senior employee and who is not and the line between who is in a position of trust and who is not are blurred. Whether, for example, a junior salesperson is in a position of trust or not depends on the specific circumstances of each case. Therefore, in order to protect itself from employees acting against the employer’s interests every employer should:

• Build in checks and balances that prevent the abuse of power
• Inform all employees of their fiduciary duties in relation to their positions of trust
• Make sure employees at all levels know the seriousness of breach of their fiduciary duties
• Take swift, fair and consistent action against employees who breach their fiduciary duties
• Obtain expert legal advice before acting against suspects.

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