By Ivan Israelstam, chief executive of Labour Law Management Consulting

Xenophobia deters many South African employers from employing immigrants. However, many other employers are not at averse to employing aliens whether they are in the country legally or illegally.

Some of the reasons for the high number of illegal immigrants gaining employment in South Africa include:

• Job seekers from outside our borders provide potential employers with false identity documents or work permits

• Employers do not always think of asking prospective employees for proof of their right to work here

• Other employers, aware of the holes in the law enforcement system in South Africa, close a blind eye to such legal requirements because they couldn’t be bothered

• Some employers believe that an illegal immigrant will be more likely to do his/her work properly and obey the employer’s rules for fear of being reported to the Department of Home Affairs

• Illegal immigrants are often willing to accept lower remuneration than is paid to legal employees

• Employees without legal papers are often more willing to accept poor treatment, transfers to out of the way locations, extra work and not being registered for unemployment insurance

• Many skills are difficult to find in South Africa and many employers do not care whether they obtain these skills legally or illegally.

It is therefore not surprising that so many employers turn a blind eye to the law’s requirements. However, they do this at their peril because the courts have the power under the Immigration Act to repatriate illegal immigrants and to impose heavy fines on offending employers.

Immigration legislation very strictly prohibits the employment of foreign nationals unless extremely stringent, rigid and unrealistically lengthy procedures are first carried out. That is, the employer is, before employing an immigrant, required to prove that it has done everything in its power to recruit a South African into the post in question and that no such South Africans are available. By the time the employer has dragged itself through this time consuming process the foreign national with the rare skills has accepted a job in another country. These restrictive regulations are, under the latest amendments, currently becoming even more rigid and draconian.

What then must employers do when they discover that some employees are working illegally? Such employers obviously need to terminate the employment of such employees. However, what is not so obvious is how the employer should go about such terminations.

An employer cannot dismiss a suspected illegal alien before checking up on these suspicions. This is because, if the employee is incorrectly fired for being illegal, it may constitute an unfair dismissal and/or unfair discrimination on the grounds of ethnicity. This could result in the employer having to pay the employee compensation up to the equivalent of 24 months remuneration.

The wise employer’s first step is to investigate thoroughly all allegations that employees are working illegally.

Secondly, especially where the employee’s status is unclear, the employer should hold a hearing to establish the truth of the matter before firing the employee. This will give a properly qualified chairperson the opportunity to look thoroughly into the legality of the employee’s status.

Thirdly, where the hearing proves that the employee is working illegally the chairperson should end the employment relationship making it clear that this has been done purely for reasons of immigration law.

A customer service representative responding on the official Telkom Twitter account has accidentally agreed with a negative comment about the company.

The user was complaining about the provider’s service delivery, and the representative replied without having correctly understood the context.

According to MyBroadband, a “professional Fortnite player Dennis ‘Cloak’ Lepore said in a tweet that ‘Spectrum might be the worst internet provider ever’. Spectrum is an ISP which serves users in the US.”

A South African Twitter user named Jonathan Oliver then “responded to Lepore’s tweet, stating ‘Nah @TelkomZA takes the number 1 spot’.”

Although both users were complaining about the service of certain Internet service providers, the Telkom customer representative responded with the following: “Yass and your continuous support keeps us up there! Thank you…”

The reply was widely mocked and shared on social media. It has since been deleted by Telkom.

Is your office too loud for introverts?

It is estimated that between a third and a half of the population are introverts, but workplaces seem to increasingly favour noisy extroverts, often to the detriment of those who prefer to work in quieter environments.

Linda Trim, director at workplace design specialists Giant Leap, says that with the rise of the open plan office and the culture of speaking often and loudly as a way to gain career advancement, many offices risk sidelining up to half their workforces.

“Our goal as designers is to create places in the workplace that allows everyone to work more effectively, not just those with the most to say.”

It is important for offices to embrace flexibility for introverts.

“It is imperative to remember not all introverts are the same. Some prefer visual privacy to focus and recharge, therefore a booth or screen can provide the needed barrier for added comfort.

“On the other hand, our experience shows that introverts and extroverts alike require audible privacy to focus, yet some prefer not to be isolated. This has led to the popular concept of library-like settings, where employees can easily plug-in and work silently in a shared environment.”

She adds that some introverts thrive in an isolated environment. “A small focus room that is set up with multiple screens, a comfortable work surface, whiteboard and natural light will allow those people to quickly focus.”

She adds that offices always faced the challenge of workstation distractions. “People still often prefer to work at their desk, especially those who have items they frequently use stored there. This can be especially challenging for introverts, because of distractions like colleagues on their phones or a group collaborating nearby,“ Trim notes.

The solution is to work with targeted individuals to create flexible workstations that offer the appropriate amount of storage, visual privacy and posture customisation.

“These factors are easily modifiable allow people to curate an environment that meets their needs and maximise individual productivity. We are also mindful of the importance of giving employees enough space between workstations,” says Trim.

But even when offices are well designed to cater for introverts working solo, there are still many instances they have to collaborate with colleagues and this creates a further challenge for the office.

“A solution is to hold meetings in a quiet room with seats organised in a myriad of forms within the room. This design creates a more inviting atmosphere and allows for more options, unlike the typical individual focus room. Therefore, the introverted users feel included as part of a group rather than excluded, isolated or on display.”

Because introverted leaders tend to carefully listen to their colleagues, they are often more successful in one-on-one meetings in areas without distractions.

“We recommend having two configurations of space. The first should include seating at a height that makes note taking or reviewing work easy, the second should include lounge height furniture for more conversational meetings.”

Trim added that research also indicates introverts are more successful when they host industry or client events in their own space, as attendees will seek them out as the key person to engage with.

“Designing a space that can easily accommodate events could be an area that has a variety of uses as well,” she concludes.

Source: MyBroadband

In 2016, Amazon unveiled the “future of shopping” with its Go store.

The store does not require shoppers to go through a checkout point – you walk in, pick what you want from the shelves, and walk out.

Everything is tracked by computer vision, sensor fusion, and deep learning, and customers are automatically billed via their Amazon account.

The first store was launched in Seattle, USA, and offered ready-made meals and grocery items.

“We created the world’s most advanced shopping technology so you never have to wait in line. No lines, no checkout,” said Amazon.

In late 2018, Amazon has expanded its Go stores to other areas in the USA and they are now being called the “inevitable evolution of supermarket retail”.

Engadget stated that Amazon Go is “a natural extension of existing retail trends”, and added that Amazon plans to open 3,000 Go stores by 2021.

Not in South Africa
While shoppers used to visit a butcher for meat and then travel to a hardware store for tools, today’s customer can buy these items from a single outlet like Makro – or visit a shopping mall where different types of shops are grouped together.

This was a natural progression which made it easier to shop. The argument for cashierless stores is the same, since walking in, taking what you want, and walking out makes the life of the shopper easier.

In South Africa, however, it is unlikely that this technology will roll out to retail chains such as Pick n Pay or Checkers in the foreseeable future.

The reason for this is that the initial job losses that would be suffered by cashiers and store staff would not be tolerated by workers’ unions.

This was proven in 2016, when Pick n Pay trialed a self-service checkout at a store in Cape Town.

The system was set to be tested for six months, and the company would see how it benefited consumers before taking the next step.

Cosatu was quick to pressure the company into not expanding the self-service trial; however, as the union stated at the time that it would lead to job losses.

Fast forward to 2018, and Pick n Pay told MyBroadband there have been no developments to the system, with no plans to take it forward either.

Cosatu told MyBroadband it is still “bitterly opposed” to the self-service checkout system, as it will decimate much needed jobs in the country.

“Our unemployment statistics are shocking and we are not going to allow the reckless introduction of mechanisation and automation,” said Cosatu.

It stated that it will fight the introduction of these systems in South Africa, and it is opposed to “technological ‘solutions’ that are imposed with no regard for local economies and cultures”.

With workers’ unions wielding the power to strike and protest, and local companies known for backing down against unions on a regular basis, it is unlikely that Amazon’s “future of shopping” will land in South Africa any time soon.

By Ivan Israelstam, chief executive of Labour Law Management Consulting

Employers are entitled to use confessions as evidence in disciplinary hearings.

However, just because an employee makes a confession this does not allow the employer to fire the employee on the spot.

This is because:

• Even where the employee does confess s/he is still entitled to a proper hearing

• The confession may have been coerced

• The employee may not have understood what he was doing when he/she signed the confession

• The act to which the employee confessed may not amount to misconduct serious enough infringement to merit dismissal.

• The CCMA might find, for technical reasons, that the confession was invalid.

We need to look at each of these factors more closely:

Even where the employee does confess he/she is still entitled to proper procedure

The Labour Relations Act (LRA) gives employees the unassailable right to a hearing and not even a confession of murder will allow the employer to deviate from this principle.

Even where the employee properly confesses to an act of misconduct it may not be a serious enough infringement to merit dismissal

Dismissal would be unfair where the employee admits to having arrived half an hour late for work especially if this is a first or second offence because dismissal must be reserved for repeated offences or for gross misconduct.

The CCMA might find, for technical reasons, that the confession was invalid

For example, in the case of FAWU obo Sotyato vs JH Group Retail Trust (2001, 8, BALR 864) the employee signed a confession that he had stolen two bottles of beer. However, the CCMA ruled out this confession on the grounds that it had not been sworn before a commissioner of oaths.

The confession may not have been made willingly

If the confession was made under duress it will not qualify as a confession at all. At best it will constitute a meaningless statement coerced out of the employee; and at worst it will act as proof that the employer was seeking a scapegoat or was trying to concoct a false case against the employee as a means of getting rid of him/her for unacceptable reasons.

The employee may not have understood what he was doing when s/he signed the confession

The employee may be asked to sign a confession document but may, for example, think he/she is signing acknowledgement of receipt of a notice of a disciplinary hearing. Should this be proven the confession will become invalid.

Confessions that are properly made and wisely used can be valuable at disciplinary hearings. The challenge for the employer is therefore to obtain the expertise necessary to ensure that once a confession is made that it sticks and is appropriately used.

By Lauren Schumacker for Business Insider US

Leaving a job, no matter the reason, can be difficult and bittersweet. When possible, you’ll want to try to leave on good terms with your soon-to-be former employer and fellow employees.

Here are some tips for leaving your current job without wrecking your office relationships.

1. Make sure you tell your boss before you tell your colleagues

When you make the decision to leave, it can be tempting to share that news with your friends at work, but it’s important to tell your boss first.

“Let your boss know as soon as possible after you’ve made the decision to leave,” Molly Hetrick, a credentialed coach and workshop facilitator, told Insider.

“Regardless of your existing relationship, it’s important that your boss have time to digest the news, and that you have time to wrap up your work.”

2. Give plenty of notice

Chances are, you already know how much notice you should generally give your employer before leaving your current gig. If you guessed one week, you’re right.

“If you are not rushed to begin your next opportunity, consider offering more than the standard notice,” Monica Yeckley, a healthcare recruiter and staffing professional for Vaco Memphis, told Insider. “If you have proven to be a valued resource, replacing you will probably be difficult.”

If you’re jumping from one position to another, however, a month is enough notice to give and you might not want to give more than that.

Dave Sanford, the EVP of client relations WinterWyman, wrote that staying longer than the period can be difficult for your new boss and company to handle and can be confusing or disrespectful. It’s up to you to gauge the situation.

3. Make sure the coworkers you want to keep in touch with will have a way to reach you

“Give them your new contact information, connect with them on LinkedIn, whatever – be sure to reach out again once you have left your position,” Lisa Sansom, the owner of LVS Consulting, told Insider.

“Don’t be offended if they don’t stay in active touch – we all know that life can get busy. Just a nice email after you have left to let them know that you appreciated your time working with them, what you enjoyed about your connection and time together, etc, can say a lot.”

4. Explain your reasons for leaving in a positive and constructive manner

Above all, make sure that you keep your exit positive. That doesn’t mean that you can’t or shouldn’t explain your reasons for leaving, however.

“When announcing to your manager that you are quitting, be clear on your reasons for doing so, and do not blame other people or talk about petty things, like if you didn’t like the coffee in the common kitchen,” Sansom said. “Talk about what you are looking forward to in the future, and what you learned from this organisation that you will take forward with you.”

5. Let your boss know that you’re leaving in writing, not just verbally

You might think that telling your boss in person or over the phone that you’re moving on to something else is preferable to writing, but it’s still a good idea to get things written down.

“Prepare a concise and well-thought-out letter in hand, and remember to say ‘thank you’ to your employer for the opportunity,” Yeckley said.

Your letter doesn’t need to be lengthy or all-encompassing, just something that explains what’s going on while acknowledging your gratitude for the opportunity.

6. Make a list of all of the things that you currently do in your position

Since your boss might not know exactly what you do each day, it’s good to be clear about everything you did while you were there, Hetrick said.

Before you leave, make a list of what you currently do – all that falls under your job description and anything that you did that’s outside of your typical responsibilities – so that the team knows what needs to be covered and the person coming in after you has a clear idea of what they need to do.

7. Offer to help find someone to fill your role

If appropriate, it’s also nice to offer to help the company find someone to fill your current role.

“Leverage your connections and referral network to find people who can bring the same expertise on the table as you did,” Ketan Kapoor, the CEO and co-founder of Mettl, told Insider. “Assist your boss or recruitment teams to find a competent hire as your replacement soon and watch your trust quotient skyrocket.”

If you offer to help find someone new and the company declines your offer, that’s fine, at least you know that you tried to be considerate instead of leaving them in the lurch.

8. Make your colleagues’ lives easier, not harder

“Make sure you leave excellent documentation for your colleagues who will pick up your work when you’re gone,” Hetrick said. Remember that other people will have to cover your work after you leave until someone else is hired to replace you.

Being as considerate as possible of that when you’re preparing to leave makes you look better than if you leave all sorts of unfinished business and unorganised files behind.

9. Stay positive on social media, too

Don’t be overly negative when speaking to your boss or anyone else at your current company about why you’re leaving, but don’t vent or complain online, either.

“People also tend to vent on social media – even if it’s ‘vaguebooking'” – and that shouldn’t ever happen,” Sansom said. “First of all, it’s bad for your professional reputation. Secondly, most people don’t remember who can see their posts – are you sure you don’t have any coworkers or colleagues who can see that?

And then, if it is on someone’s screen, anyone can take a screenshot and send it along to your boss, for example. It can come back to bite you so easily – now or at any time in the future. Nothing is safe or secure or private out there. Nothing. So don’t vent on social media. Don’t even vent when you think you’re hiding all of the details. Just don’t.”

It’s not worth burning that bridge or ruining your own reputation by carelessly venting on social media.

10. Keep working hard until your very last day

After you’ve announced your intention to leave, it can sometimes be tempting to slack off a bit, but if you’re hoping to leave on a good note, working hard until your last day is a better way to go.

“Treat your final days like any other typical day and perform no differently than if you weren’t leaving,” Yeckley said. “It’s understandable that you’re thinking toward the future and [are] excited about your new endeavour, but continue to produce and give it your all. A good lasting impression will keep that bridge from burning.”

Employers: beware of unfair labour practices

By Ivan Israelstam, chief executive of Labour Law Management Consulting

Section 186(2) of the LRA defines “Unfair labour Practice” as “any unfair act or omission that arises between an employer and an employee involving-

(a) unfair conduct by the employer relating to the promotion, demotion, probation or training of an employee or relating to the provision of benefits to an employee);
(b) the unfair suspension of an employee or any other unfair disciplinary action short of dismissal in respect of an employee;
(c) a failure or refusal by an employer to reinstate or re-employ a former employee in terms of any agreement; and
(d) an occupational detriment, other than dismissal, in contravention of the Protected Disclosures Act, 2000 on account of the employee having made a protected disclosure defined in that Act.”

The word “unfair” is mentioned several times in the above definition. For example, under part (b) of the definition the section mentions “…any other unfair disciplinary action…” However, without an explanation of what ‘unfair’ means the entire definition of an unfair labour practice is meaningless. For example, there are many fair actions relating to discipline and many unfair ones. How do we distinguish between these? In addition to the definition of ‘unfair’ that I proposed above it is useful to examine the way in which arbitrators attempting to resolve labour disputes decide whether an act of an employer is fair or unfair.

In the case of Bosman vs SA Police Services (2003 5 BALR 523) Bosman and a black female had been shortlisted as candidates for promotion. The selection committee decided that the black female should be promoted for reasons of population group representivity. However, the committee was unable to prove at arbitration:

  • That the appointment of the black female would have promoted representivity and
  • That the black female was the best suited candidate

In the light of this the arbitrator found that the failure to promote Bosman was unfair and ordered the employer to promote her. The ‘unfairness’ decision here was made on the basis that:

  • Bosman had been proven to be the best candidate and therefore had the right to be promoted and
  • The decision to promote the black female was inappropriate because she was not the best candidate and there was no proof that her promotion would have served the purpose of affirmative action.

At the root of many “unfair” practices is the employer’s attempt to gain something. There is nothing wrong per se with an employer gaining something, as long as the employee or job candidate does not lose out unfairly as a result. Thus, an employer is entitled to protect its interests or save money by disciplining an employee or changing the employee’s benefits provided that the discipline is merited or the loss to the employee is justified.

As always, the challenge for the employer is to judge when its actions are merited and justified. Due to the complexity of the law such judgement cannot be done via guesswork. Every employer must therefore obtain comprehensive and in-depth expertise in labour law via the use of a reputable labour law expert and via training of all levels of management in the application of labour law.

It’s been called the new cancer and it’s killing us. Sitting hunched forward looking at a screen all day causes a laundry list of health issues, from heart and brain damage to back, hip and neck problems.

Linda Trim, director at Giant Leap, says that such is the growing awareness of the dangers of sitting, that in addition to ensuring correct ergonomics for desks and chairs, she increasingly works with movement specialists like Monja Boonzaier, who helps employees preserve their health in the office.

Boonzaier (who teaches locally the internationally accepted Feldenkrais Method of body awareness and movement) says that although many people understand how bad all day sitting is, much of the advice on how to combat it “is impractical and wrong.”

“For example, people are advised to sit leaning back. But how can you sit back in chair and work on a computer? A lot of advice is also centred around having a strong core because you need those muscles to hold you upright.

“It’s a good theory but people know from their own experience a strong stomach does not make you sit upright. If you watch someone who has been told to sit or stand straight they cannot maintain this ‘correct’ position without a continuous effort. As soon as their attention shifts to an activity that is interesting they will slump back to their original posture.”

Boonzaier says that dynamic sitting is a powerful solution and is increasingly taught the world over as a way to combat the ill effects of sitting all day.

“We recommend arm and wrist stretches, doing side bends to the left and the right to stretch lower back pains, and also doing glute stretches like lunges or swinging each leg forward and back while standing. You should also regularly roll your feet, rock your pelvis back and forth, shift your weight to the left and right sides of your seat, and press each ear to its nearest shoulder. “

Boonzaier says this only take a few minutes and suggests doing a few of them every hour as it will dramatically reduce joint stiffness and back pain. “Ideally people should also get up from their desks and walk around the office or up and down the stairs every hour too.”

Trim, however, warns that stretching at work doesn’t mean you can skip exercise. “The three best exercises to combat sitting for long spells are squats, lunges and wall sits. The best thing about these exercises that you can do them anywhere, you don’t need a gym.”

Trim adds that ergonomically friendly desks and chairs was also fundamental to good office health. “Amongst other things, this means having an adjustable chair that supports your spine and allows you to sit with feet flat on the floor and thighs parallel to the floor. Desks should have clearance for your knees. Computer monitors should be placed directly in front of you, about an arm’s length away. The top of the screen should be at or slightly below eye level. The monitor should be directly behind your keyboard.”

There is another often overlooked aspect to sitting all day – we forget to breathe.
“Bad posture and stress at work often makes us forget to breathe properly. Every hour, take a few moments to take three or four really deep breaths. Breathe in deeply and then out slowly and press the breath out of your lungs. This can be done while stretching.”

What do Millennials want at work?

Analysing and interpreting Millennials is an industry in itself, but are they really as different as experts would have us believe – especially when it comes to the workplace?

Richard Andrews, MD of Inspiration Office, says, “While pointed descriptions of what makes Millennials unique are presented as self-evident, very few are supported with solid empirical research.

“On the contrary, a growing body of evidence suggests that employees of all ages are much more alike than different in their attitudes and values at work.

“If gaps do exist, they amount to small differences that have always existed between younger and older workers throughout history and have little to do with the Millennial generation.”

And there are plenty of examples as evidence.

“Even the most widely accepted stereotypes about Millennials appear to be questionable” Andrews noted, pointing to a recent study by IBM’s Institute for Business Value. The report entitled Myths, Exaggerations and Uncomfortable Truths – The real story behind Millennials in the workplace was based on a multigenerational study of 1 784 employees from companies across 12 countries and six industries. It found that about the same percentage of Millennials (25%) want to make a positive impact on their organisation as Gen Xers (21%) and Baby Boomers (23%). Differences were uniformly minimal across nine other variables as well.

A 2015 study commissioned by international business broadcaster CNBC showed similar results.

“Looking at the importance of six traits in a potential employer — ethics, environmental practices, work-life balance, profitability, diversity and reputation for hiring the best and brightest — the CNBC study found found that Millennial preferences are just about the same as the broader population on all six.

“In fact, contrary to the hard-to-please image, Millennials reported being more satisfied with the training and skills development they receive. And 76% were satisfied with their opportunities for promotion, 10 percentage points higher than the rest of the population.”

A KPMG study also showed Millennials also to also be virtually identical to their older colleagues on every measure of overall engagement such as pride in the organisation, optimism about the firm’s future and trust in leadership.

So why do so many people perceive Millennials as so different? An interesting study was carried out by researchers from George Washington University in which they reviewed 20 studies examining generational differences.

“The conclusion was that meaningful differences among generations probably do not exist in the workplace. The small differences that do appear are likely attributable to factors such as stage of life more than generational membership, “ Andrews notes.

“For example, one of the prevailing perceptions of Millennials is that they have much higher traits of narcissism. But interestingly, this study shows it’s a trait more associated with young people, and not linked to when you were born.”

Andrews added that the myth of the job-hopping Millennial is just that — a myth. The data consistently showed that today’s young people are actually less likely to job hop than previous generations.

In light of all this evidence, it’s likely that companies pursuing Millennial-specific employee engagement strategies are wasting time and money.

“They would be far better served to focus on factors that lead all employees to join, stay, and perform at their best,” Andrews added. “And those factors are the same for all workers – a winning organisation they can be proud of, an environment in which they can make the most of their skills, good pay and fair treatment and enjoyable, fulfilling work.”

The meaning of ‘unfair’

By Ivan Israelstam, chief executive of Labour Law Management Consulting 

The Labour Relations Act (LRA), born from the Constitution, provides that “every employee has the right not to be-
(a) unfairly dismissed; and
(b) subjected to unfair labour practice.”

Section 187 of the LRA provides that a dismissal is automatically unfair if it has an unfair reason. The section then lists the reasons for dismissal that would be unfair. For example, if the employee was fired because he/she had exercised his right to take action against the employer in terms of the LRA, this retaliatory dismissal would be automatically unfair. Again, we have an example of the employer’s interference with an employee’s right being defined as “unfair”.

‘Unfair’ is one of the most frequently used terms in labour law. The CCMA receives tens of thousands of referrals each year from employees claiming unfair treatment at the hands of their employers. It is therefore most surprising that this term is not defined in any of the statutes. The result of this is that the decision as to what is “unfair” has to be made by trade unions, employees, employers, judges, arbitrators, and legal practitioners in each individual case where unfairness is being alleged.

While the legal meaning of the term ‘unfair’ is extremely illusive every employer needs to have a proper grasp of the legal meaning of “unfair” in order to avoid the legal repercussions of doing anything unfair to its employees.

Section 188 of the LRA deems a dismissal to be unfair, even if it is not automatically unfair, if the employer fails to prove-
(a) that the reason for the dismissal is a fair reason; and
(b) that the dismissal was effected in accordance with a fair procedure.

This section explains neither what is meant by “a fair reason” nor what a “fair procedure” is. However, common law has established guidelines in these regards and these guidelines have been codified in Schedule 8 of the LRA. For example, item 7(b) includes a requirement that any person deciding whether a misconduct dismissal was fair must, amongst other things determine whether the dismissal was an appropriate sanction for the contravention of the rule that was contravened by the employee.

The word “appropriate” here again gives us a clue to what is “unfair”. That is, if the employer’s decision or action is inappropriate it could be unfair in labour law. The word “appropriate” in a labour law context implies that the employer’s action must be appropriate in the context of the specific situation in which the action was taken. Another way of putting this is that “the punishment must fit the crime”. If the employee is fired for a minor infringement or where circumstances reduce his/her liability a dismissal would usually be inappropriate and therefore unfair.

In summary, the act of an employer would be seen to be unfair if it is one-sided, unnecessary and/or inappropriate under the circumstances or infringes the employee’s rights. As employees have a vast number of very strong labour law rights employers need to ensure they understand these rights. They need to avoid taking any action affecting employees before checking with their labour law expert that it would be safe to take such action and how to go about it.

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